Climate Simulations of Hot Jupiters: Developing and Applying an Accurate Radiation Scheme
Amundsen, David S.
Thesis or dissertation
University of Exeter
To date more than 1500 exoplanets have been discovered. A large number of these are hot Jupiters, Jupiter-sized planets orbiting < 0.1 au from their parent stars, due to limitations in observational techniques making them easier to detect than smaller planets in wider orbits. This is also, for the same reasons, the class of exoplanets with the most observational constraints. Due to the very large interaction between these planets and their parent stars they are believed to be tidally locked, causing a large temperature contrast between the permanently hot day side and colder night side. There are still many open questions about these planets. Many are observed to have inflated radii, i.e. the observed radius is larger for a given mass than evolutionary models predict. A mechanism that can transport some of the stellar heating into the interior of the planet may be able to explain this. The presence of hazes or clouds has been inferred on some planets, but their composition and distribution remain unknown. According to chemical equilibrium models TiO and VO should be present on the day side of the hottest of these planets, but these molecules have not yet been detected. Cold traps, where these molecules condense out on the night side, have been suggested to explain this. The efficiency of the heat redistribution from the day side to the night side has been found to vary significantly between different planets; the mechanism behind this is still unknown. To begin to answer many of these questions we need models capturing the three-dimensional nature of the atmospheres of these planets. General circulation models (GCMs) do this by solving the equations of fluid dynamics for the atmosphere coupled to a radiative transfer scheme. GCMs have previously been applied to several exoplanets, but many solve simplified fluid equations (shallow water or primitive equations) or highly parametrised radiation schemes (temperature-forcing, gray or band-averaged opacities). We here present an adaptation of the Met Office Unified Model (UM), a GCM used for weather predictions and climate studies for the Earth, to hot Jupiters. The UM solves the full 3D Euler equations for the fluid, and the radiation scheme uses the two-stream approximation and correlated-k method, which are state of the art for both Earth and exoplanet GCMs. This makes it ideally suited for the study of hot Jupiters. An important part of this work is devoted to the adaptation of the radiation scheme of the UM to hot Jupiters. This includes calculation of opacities for the main absorbers in these atmospheres from state-of-the-art high temperature line lists, the calculation of k-coefficients from these opacities, and making sure all aspects of the scheme perform satisfactorily at high temperatures and pressures. We have tested approximations made in previous works such as the two-stream approximation, use of band-averaged opacities and different treatments of gaseous overlap. Uncertainties in current models, such as the lack of high temperature line broadening parameters for these atmospheres, are discussed. We couple the adapted radiation scheme to the UM dynamical core, which has been tested independently. Our first application is devoted to one of the most well-observed hot Jupiters, HD 209458b. Differences between previous modelling works and our model are discussed, and we compare results from the full coupled model with results obtained using a temperature-forcing scheme. We have also developed a tool to calculate synthetic phase curves, and emission and transmission spectra from the output of our 3D model. This enables us to directly compare our model results to observations and test the effect of various parameters and model choices on observable quantities.
Amundsen, D. S., Baraffe, I., Tremblin, P., et al. 2014, A&A, 564, A59
PhD in Physics