Nitrate pharmacokinetics: taking note of the difference
James, Philip E.
Willis, Gareth R.
Allen, Jason D.
Winyard, Paul G.
Jones, Andrew M.
Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Elsevier for Nitric Oxide Society
Accepted version: © 2015, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Reason for embargo
It is now recognised that administration of oral nitrate (NO3(-)), in its various forms, increases the level of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in the circulation of humans. Its application to modulate physiology and alleviate cardiovascular dysfunction in some patients is now recorded and shows particular promise in hypertension, in modifying platelet activation/aggregation, and in conditions where tissue ischemia prevails. The potential of oral NO3(-) to modify exercise/performance via elevation of plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2(-)]) has been applied across a range of human test systems. Herein we discuss how the choice of NO3(-) source, route of administration and resulting pharmacokinetics might influence the outcome of physiological measures and potentially contribute to discrepancies in performance trials. There are but a few examples of detailed pharmacokinetic data on which the majority of researchers base their test protocols in different cohorts/settings. We compare and contrast the results of key publications with the aim of highlighting a consensus of our current understanding and critical considerations for those entering the field.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier. NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry (2015), DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2015.04.006
Vol. 48, pp. 44-50