Comparative personality assessment of three captive primate species Macaca nigra, Macaca sylvanus, and Saimiri sciureus
Lea, Stephen E.G.
International Journal of Primatology
Springer Verlag (Germany)
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-015-9843-3
Reason for embargo
Comparative studies of primate personality offer informative insights into the evolutionary origins of personality structure in primate species. Primate personality research has however focused on a limited number of species. We investigated personality in three relatively understudied species: Sulawesi black crested macaques (Macaca nigra), Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and common squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). A 38 item questionnaire was sent to all European zoological institutions holding the study species and keepers were required to rate animals on all items. Assessments achieved good levels of inter-rater reliability. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed Sociability and Dominance personality dimensions in all study species, an Emotionality dimension in both M. nigra, and M. sylvanus, a Cautiousness dimension in S. sciureus and a Human-Animal Sociability dimension in M. sylvanus. Sociability and Dominance dimensions were shown to have good construct validity, as assessed through appropriate relationships with sex and age and correlations with behavioural measures. The Sociability, Dominance, Emotionality and Cautiousness dimensions were comparable with analogous dimensions in other primate species but aggressive-type traits did not load onto the Dominance dimension in M. nigra and M. sylvanus. We suggest that this may be attributed to their more tolerant social systems compared to other primate species. The Human-Animal Sociability dimension could not be compared with other primate studies as, to date, there has been limited investigation of human-directed personality dimensions in captive primates. Our findings suggest that the two Macaca species are more similar to each other, in terms of their personality structure, than either is to S. sciureus which indicates phylogenetic similarity is an important predictor of personality. However further comparative analysis of a wider range of primate species is needed to inform theories regarding the evolution of primate personality structure.
University of Exeter
The Primate Society of Great Britain
Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust
Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015
Vol. 36 (3), pp 625-646