Adaptive water demand forecasting for near real-time management of smart water distribution systems
Environmental Modelling and Software
© 2014. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
This paper presents a novel methodology to perform adaptive Water Demand Forecasting (WDF) for up to 24h ahead with the aim to support near real-time operational management of smart Water Distribution Systems (WDSs). The novel WDF methodology is exclusively based on the analysis of water demand time series (i.e., demand signals) and makes use of Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks (EANNs). It is implemented in a fully automated, data-driven and self-learning Demand Forecasting System (DFS) that is readily transferable to practice. The main characteristics of the DFS are: (a) continuous adaptability to ever changing water demand patterns and (b) generic and seamless applicability to different demand signals. The DFS enables applying two alternative WDF approaches. In the first approach, multiple EANN models are used in parallel to separately forecast demands for different hours of the day. In the second approach, a single EANN model with a fixed forecast horizon (i.e., 1h) is used in a recursive fashion to forecast demands. Both approaches have been tested and verified on a real-life WDS in the United Kingdom (UK). The results obtained illustrate that, regardless of the WDF approach used, the novel methodology allows accurate forecasts to be generated thereby demonstrating the potential to yield substantial improvements to the state-of-the-art in near real-time WDS management. The results obtained also demonstrate that the multiple-EANN-models approach slightly outperforms the single-EANN-model approach in terms of WDF accuracy. The single-EANN-model approach, however, still enables achieving good WDF performance and may be a preferred option in engineering practice as it is easier to setup/implement. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Environmental Modelling and Software, 2014, Vol. 60, pp. 265 - 276