Flexible water distribution system design under future demand uncertainty
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
© 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers
In order to address the issue of water demand uncertainty due to the effect of climate change and urbanization in the design and management of water distribution systems (WDSs), a flexible methodology that combines sampling techniques (Monte Carlo-MC or Latin Hypercube-LH simulations), decision tree analysis, and genetic algorithm optimization is presented. The methodology gives flexible and optimal decisions as future water demand unfolds. The problem of optimal WDS design under uncertain future water demand is formulated here as a multiobjective optimization problem. The two objectives are as follows: (1) minimisation of total intervention cost; and (2) maximization of WDS end resilience. The decision variables are the conventional design interventions (e.g., pipe duplication and/or replacement of existing pipes with new ones, addition of tanks and pumps, etc.) and the water demand threshold values. The output from the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA2) optimisation process is the Pareto front containing staged (developmental) design solutions represented in a decision tree form with an optimal water demand threshold value that results due to the trade-off in terms of the two objectives analyzed over the planning horizon. This methodology was applied on the New York Tunnels and the Anytown network problems. The results show that there is value achieved by building flexibility in design when compared to the deterministic approach in the long-term planning of WDSs under uncertainty.
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 2013, Vol. 141, Issue 4