Impulsivity and symptoms of nicotine dependence in a young adult population.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Oxford University Press
© The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
INTRODUCTION: Impulsivity is widely regarded as a risk factor for drug dependence. However, its relationship with the symptomatology of nicotine dependence is poorly understood. METHODS: To examine the nature of these relationships, we recruited 404 daily and occasional smokers from a predominantly student population and assessed the association between impulsivity, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and several self-reported measures of smoking rate and nicotine dependence, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSM-IV) criteria. RESULTS: Overall, impulsivity was high throughout the entire sample but only modestly associated with nicotine dependence. Within the diagnostic criteria of nicotine dependence, two symptoms, which reflect automatized or habitual smoking, were most strongly associated with impulsivity. CONCLUSION: These data support recent human and animal work, which suggests that impulsivity is linked to the formation of habitual drug use, and are discussed within the framework of a dual-system account of drug seeking.
This work was supported by a Medical Research Council grant (number G0701456; LH).
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
This is the final version of the article. Available from Oxford University Press via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 13, Iss. 12, pp. 1321 - 1325
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