Movement Form of the Overarm Throw for Children at 6, 10 and 14 Years of Age.
Palmer, HA; Newell, KM; Mulloy, F; et al.Gordon, D; Smith, L; Williams, GKR
Date: 7 October 2020
European Journal of Sport Science
Taylor & Francis
This study investigated overarm throwing technique at different developmental ages in children from the perspective of three distinct, though potentially complementary, approaches to motor skill acquisition. Children at 6, 10, and 14 years of age (N = 18), completed dominant overarm throws during which whole-body kinematic data were ...
This study investigated overarm throwing technique at different developmental ages in children from the perspective of three distinct, though potentially complementary, approaches to motor skill acquisition. Children at 6, 10, and 14 years of age (N = 18), completed dominant overarm throws during which whole-body kinematic data were collected. Firstly, application of Newell's (1985) stages of learning identified three distinct age-related coupling modes between forward motion of the centre-of-mass (CoM) and the wrist, which demonstrated a greater range of couplings for older children. Secondly, in line with Bernstein's (1967) hypothesis of freezing before freeing degrees of freedom, a significantly smaller range of motion (ROM) at the ankle and knee joints, but greater ROM at the hip and upper limb joints was found for the 6 year old group compared to the 10 and 14 year old groups. Thirdly, based on the components model (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), the overarm throws demonstrated by 6 year olds were characterised as primitive to intermediate, where 10 and 14 year old's throws were characterised by the penultimate action level for each component. Characteristics of CoM-wrist coupling more clearly identify children's age-related technique and highlight the importance of posture-ball release dynamics. The posture-ball dynamics were supported by changes in ROM and the components model, revealing the complementary nature of the 3 approaches to the analysis of age-related differences in overarm throwing action. Highlights A cross-sectional study of overarm throwing for children at 6, 10 and 14 years of age Qualitative and quantitative technique changes were examined Key technique change with age was increased joint range of motion of lower extremities Centre of mass-wrist coupling became more complex with age.
Sport and Health Sciences
College of Life and Environmental Sciences
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