Consequences of Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cachexia on Muscle Metabolic Processes.
Clinical Lung Cancer
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.
Reason for embargo
INTRODUCTION: The loss of muscle is common in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of this group. The exact mechanisms behind the muscle loss are unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To investigate this, 4 patients with stage IV NSCLC who met the clinical definitions for sarcopenia and cachexia were recruited, along with 4 age-matched healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, biopsy specimens were obtained from the vastus lateralis, and the key components associated with inflammation and the control of muscle protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism were assessed. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy volunteers, significant increases in mRNA levels for interleukin-6 and NF-κB signaling and lower intramyocellular lipid content in slow-twitch fibers were observed in NSCLC patients. Although a significant decrease in phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling protein 4E-BP1 (Ser(65)) was observed, along with a trend toward reduced p70 S6K (Thr(389)) phosphorylation (P = .06), no difference was found between groups for the mRNA levels of MAFbx (muscle atrophy F box) and MuRF1 (muscle ring finger protein 1), chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, or protein levels of multiple proteasome subunits. Moreover, despite decreases in intramyocellular lipid content, no robust changes in mRNA levels for key proteins involved in insulin signaling, glycolysis, oxidative metabolism, or fat metabolism were observed. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that examining the contribution of suppressed mTOR signaling in the loss of muscle mass in late-stage NSCLC patients is warranted and reinforces our need to understand the potential contribution of impaired fat metabolism and muscle protein synthesis in the etiology of cancer cachexia.
Funding was received from The University of Nottingham to help support the analytical costs associated with the study. Dr Maddocks is funded by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Post-Doctoral Fellowship (PDF-2011-04-048). The associated funding bodies did not have any involvement in the design or execution of the study, nor in the decision to publish. We are particularly grateful to the volunteers and patients, who generously gave up their free time to participate in the study, Dr. Vanessa Halliday for analysis of the food diaries, and Dr. Chris Shannon for performing the PDCa measurements.
Available online 25 June 2016