The impact of sport participation on bone mass and geometry in adolescent males
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the American College of Sports Medicine via the DOI in this record.
Reason for embargo
Exercise is an effective approach for developing bone mass and adolescence is a key period to optimize bone health. However, sports specific training may have different effects on bone outcomes. This study examined the differences on bone outcomes between osteogenic (football) and non-osteogenic (swimming and cycling) sports and a control group in adolescent males. Methods: One hundred twenty one males (13.1±0.1 years) were measured: 41 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 controls. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at lumbar spine, right and left hip and total body. Hip structural analysis evaluated bone geometry at the femoral neck. Quantitative ultrasound evaluated bone stiffness at both feet. Results: Footballers had significantly higher BMD at total body less head (7-9%), total hip (12-2%) and legs (7-11%) compared to all groups and significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck than controls (14%). Cyclists had higher BMD at the trochanter (10%) and BMC at the arms (10%) compared to controls. Geometrical analysis showed that footballers had significantly higher cross-sectional area (8-19%) compared to all groups, cross-sectional moment of inertia (17 %) compared to controls and section modulus compared to cyclists (11%) and controls (21%). Footballers had significantly higher bone stiffness compared to all groups (10-20%) at the dominant foot and (12-13%) at the nondominant foot compared to swimmers and controls. Conclusions: Adolescent male footballers exhibited higher bone density, geometry and stiffness compared to swimmers, cyclists and controls. Although swimmers and cyclists had higher bone outcomes compared to controls, these differences were not significant.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n°. PCIG13-GA-2013-618496.
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