Body composition, nutritional profile and muscular fitness affect bone health in a sample of schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study
Gracia Marco, L
© 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤−1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤−1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life.
: We would like to acknowledge to Bogota District Education Department for supporting data collection for this study. The authors also thank the participating Bogota District students, teachers, schools, and staff. The “FUPRECOL Study” was possible given the financial support provided by the Instituto Colombiano para el Desarrollo de la Ciencia y la Tecnología “Francisco José de Caldas” COLCIENCIAS (Contract Number 671-2014 Code 122265743978). Also, during the completion of this paper, AG-H was visiting researchers at the University of Rosario (CEMA, Bogotá, Colombia), supported with grants awarded by Proyectos Basales y Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación” (Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH).
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Vol 9(2), 106; doi:10.3390/nu9020106