Bone health: The independent and combined effects of calcium, Vitamin D and exercise in children and adolescents
Royal Society of Chemistry
Reason for embargo
This is the final version. Under indefinite embargo due to publisher policy. The final version is available from the Royal Society of Chemistry via the DOI in this record.
Early childhood and adolescence is considered the most important period for bone-mass optimization. Calcium, vitamin D and exercise play an important role on bone development during growth. In this chapter, we address the independent and combined effects of calcium and vitamin D and exercise on bone health in children and adolescents. Current research in this population indicates that both calcium and vitamin D intakes have a synergistic effect on bone mass and that adequate levels are necessary for normal bone mineralization. In addition, weight-bearing exercise has been shown to be a strong and positive predictor of bone health with evidence suggesting that its effect is enhanced when combined with adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes. While calcium, vitamin D and exercise are considered important modifiable factors of bone development, there is a need for further investigation on the interactions of these factors in order to improve bone development during the period of growth.
Chapter 32 of Calcium: Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effects, edited by Victor R Preedy, pp. 530-546