Current major depression is associated with greater sensitivity to the motivational effect of both negative mood induction and abstinence on tobacco-seeking behavior
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Reason for embargo
Background: Although depression and smoking commonly co-occur, the mechanisms underpinning this association are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that depression promotes tobacco dependence, persistence and relapse by increasing sensitivity to acute negative mood and abstinence induced tobacco-seeking behavior. Methods: Twenty nine daily smokers of >10 cigarettes per day, nine with major depression and 20 without, completed two laboratory sessions one week apart, smoking as normal prior to session 1 (sated session), and 6 hours abstinent prior to session 2 (abstinent session). In both sessions, tobacco-seeking was measured at baseline by preference to view smoking versus food images. Negative mood was then induced by negative ruminative statements and sad music, before tobacco-seeking was measured again at test. Results: In the sated session, negative mood induction produced a greater increase in tobacco choice from baseline to test in depressed (p<.001, ηp2=.782) compared to non-depressed smokers (p=.045, ηp2=.216, interaction: p=.046, ηp2=.150). Abstinence also produced a greater increase in baseline tobacco choice between the sated and abstinent sessions in depressed (p=.002, ηp2=.771) compared to non-depressed smokers (p=.22, ηp2=.089, interaction: p=.023, ηp2=.189). These mood and abstinence induced increases in tobacco choice were positively associated with depression symptoms across the sample as a whole (ps≤.04, ηp2≥.159), and correlated with each other (r=.67, p<.001). Conclusions: Current major depression or depression symptoms may promote tobacco dependence, persistence and relapse by increasing sensitivity to both acute negative mood and abstinence induced tobacco-seeking behavior. Treatments should seek to break the association between adverse states and smoking to cope.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.
Available online 13 April 2017