Effect of a program of short bouts of exercise on bone health in adolescents involved in different sports: the PRO-BONE study protocol
Gracia Marco, L
Metcalf, Brad S.
BMC Public Health
BioMed Central (BMC)
© 2015 Vlachopoulos et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain. Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Background: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with high morbidity, mortality and increased economic costs. Early prevention during adolescence appears to be one of the most beneficial practices. Exercise is an effective approach for developing bone mass during puberty, but some sports may have a positive or negative impact on bone mass accrual. Plyometric jump training has been suggested as a type of exercise that can augment bone, but its effects on adolescent bone mass have not been rigorously assessed. The aims of the PRO-BONE study are to: 1) longitudinally assess bone health and its metabolism in adolescents engaged in osteogenic (football), non-osteogenic (cycling and swimming) sports and in a control group, and 2) examine the effect of a 9 month plyometric jump training programme on bone related outcomes in the sport groups. Methods/Design: This study will recruit 105 males aged 12-14 years who have participated in sport specific training for at least 3 hours per week during the last 3 years in the following sports groups: football (n=30), cycling (n=30) and swimming (n=30). An age-matched control group (n=15) that does not engage in these sports more than 3 hours per week will also be recruited. Participants will be measured on 5 occasions: 1) at baseline; 2) after 12 months of sport specific training where each sport group will be randomly allocated into two sub-groups: intervention group (sport + plyometric jump training) and sport group (sport only); 3) exactly after the 9 months of intervention; 4) 6 months following the intervention; 5) 12 months following the intervention. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance), bone stiffness index (ultrasounds), physical activity (accelerometers), diet (24 h recall questionnaire), pubertal maturation (Tanner stage), physical fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular) and biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption will be measured at each visit. Discussion: The PRO-BONE study is designed to investigate the impact of osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent males during puberty, and how a plyometric jump training programme is associated with body composition parameters.
European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013]
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from BioMed Central via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 15 (1), article 361