Longitudinal Adaptations of Bone Mass, Geometry and Metabolism in Adolescent Male Athletes. The PRO-BONE Study.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
American Society for Bone and Mineral Research / Wiley
Reason for embargo
Adolescence is a crucial period for bone development and exercise can enhance bone acquisition during this period of life. However, it is not known how the different loading sports practised can affect bone acquisition in adolescent male athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the 1 year longitudinal bone acquisition among adolescent males involved in osteogenic (football) and non-osteogenic sports (swimming and cycling) and compared to active controls. 116 adolescent males aged 12-14 years at baseline were monitored 1 year: 37 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 active controls. Bone mineral content (BMC) assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and section modulus (Z) at the femoral neck assessed using hip structural analysis (HSA), and bone texture of the lumbar spine using trabecular bone score (TBS). Serum N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP), isomer of the Carboxi-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-I), total serum calcium and 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were analysed. Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at the lumbar spine (7.0%) and femoral neck (5.0%) compared to cyclists and significantly greater BMC at the lumbar spine (6.9%). Footballers presented significantly greater TBS (4.3%) compared to swimmers, greater CSMI (10.2%), CSA (7.1%), Z (8.9%) and TBS (4.2%) compared to cyclists. No differences noted between cyclists and swimmers while both groups had non-significant lower bone acquisition compared to controls. PINP was significantly higher in footballers and controls compared to cyclists and swimmers (3.3-6.0%) and 25(OH)D was significantly higher in footballers and cyclists compared to swimmers and controls (9.9-13.1%). These findings suggest that bone acquisition is higher in adolescent male footballers compared to swimmers and cyclists at the femoral neck and lumbar spine sites of the skeleton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n°. PCIG13-GA-2013-618496.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from American Society for Bone and Mineral Research via the DOI in this record.
Accepted manuscript online: 7 July 2017
Place of publication