Protein structure and phenotypic analysis of pathogenic and population missense variants inSTXBP1.
Molecular Genetics and Genomic Medicine
Wiley Open Access
© 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
BACKGROUND: Syntaxin-binding protein 1, encoded bySTXBP1, is highly expressed in the brain and involved in fusing synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Studies have shown that pathogenic loss-of-function variants in this gene result in various types of epilepsies, mostly beginning early in life. We were interested to model pathogenic missense variants on the protein structure to investigate the mechanism of pathogenicity and genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: We report 11 patients with pathogenic de novo mutations inSTXBP1identified in the first 4293 trios of the Deciphering Developmental Disorder (DDD) study, including six missense variants. We analyzed the structural locations of the pathogenic missense variants from this study and the literature, as well as population missense variants extracted from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). RESULTS: Pathogenic variants are significantly more likely to occur at highly conserved locations than population variants, and be buried inside the protein domain. Pathogenic mutations are also more likely to destabilize the domain structure compared with population variants, increasing the proportion of (partially) unfolded domains that are prone to aggregation or degradation. We were unable to detect any genotype-phenotype correlation, but unlike previously reported cases, most of the DDD patients withSTXBP1pathogenic variants did not present with very early-onset or severe epilepsy and encephalopathy, though all have developmental delay with intellectual disability and most display behavioral problems and suffered seizures in later childhood. CONCLUSION: Variants acrossSTXBP1that cause loss of function can result in severe intellectual disability with or without seizures, consistent with a haploinsufficiency mechanism. Pathogenic missense mutations act through destabilization of the protein domain, making it prone to aggregation or degradation. The presence or absence of early seizures may reflect ascertainment bias in the literature as well as the broad recruitment strategy of the DDD study.
This study was supported by the Health Innovation Challenge Fund (grant number: HICF-1009-003) and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (grant number: WT098051).
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Vol. 5 (5), pp. 495 - 507
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