Anxiety, Attentional Control, and Performance Impairment in Penalty Kicks
Wilson, Mark R.
Vine, Samuel J.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC
The current study sought to test the predictions of attentional control theory (ACT) in a sporting environment. Fourteen experienced footballers took penalty kicks under low- and high-threat counterbalanced conditions while wearing a gaze registration system. Fixations to target locations (goalkeeper and goal area) were determined using frame-by-frame analysis. When anxious, footballers made faster first fixations and fixated for significantly longer toward the goalkeeper. This disruption in gaze behavior brought about significant reductions in shooting accuracy, with shots becoming significantly centralized and within the goalkeeper’s reach. These findings support the predictions of ACT, as anxious participants were more likely to focus on the “threatening” goalkeeper, owing to an increased influence of the stimulus-driven attentional control system.
notes: affiliation: Wilson, MR (Reprint Author), Univ Exeter, Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, St Lukes Campus, Exeter, Devon, England. [Wilson, Mark R.; Wood, Greg; Vine, Samuel J.] Univ Exeter, Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Exeter, Devon, England. keywords: soccer; football; visual attention; attentional bias; choking keywords-plus: PROCESSING EFFICIENCY THEORY; VISUAL-ATTENTION; STATE ANXIETY; SOCCER; GOALKEEPERS; SEARCH; DIRECTION; PRESSURE; BEHAVIOR; CHOKING subject-category: Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism; Psychology, Applied; Psychology; Sport Sciences number-of-cited-references: 43 times-cited: 1 journal-iso: J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. doc-delivery-number: 543ZD unique-id: ISI:000273619700005
© 2009 Human Kinetics, Inc
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 2009, Vol. 31, Issue 6, pp. 761 - 775