When the chips are down: Effects of attributional feedback on self-efficacy and task performance following initial and repeated failure
Journal of Sports Sciences
Taylor & Francis
In two experiments, we manipulated the controllability and stability of causes of failure and explored the impact of these factors on self-efficacy and performance. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 80; mean age 20.03, SD 1.03 years) were provided with false negative feedback following performance on a blindfolded dart throwing task. Consistent with theory and recent research, an induced belief that failure was beyond control and unlikely to change led to lower self-efficacy and worse performance, Fs(1, 75) > 5.49, ps < .05, η2s = .01. A second experiment (N = 80; mean age 21.96, SD 2.10 years) demonstrated that following an induced belief that failure was beyond control and unlikely to change, only new perceptions that a repeated failure was within one’s control and likely to change resulted in higher self-efficacy and improved performance, Fs(1, 75) > 4.53, ps < .05, η2s > .004. All effects were mediated by self-efficacy, Sobel’s (1982) test, zs > 1.97 (in absolute magnitude), ps < .05, rs > .22 (in absolute magnitude). These findings suggest that in novel circumstances individuals believe in the best for themselves unless possibilities to self-enhance are explicitly precluded and only reinvest efforts when opportunities for self-enhancement become clearly admissible.
This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Journal of Sports Sciences, 2011, Vol. 29, pp. 235 – 245, © 2011 copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/ DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2010.531752
Journal of Sports Sciences, 2011, Vol. 29, pp. 235 - 245