Inferring the eigenvalues of covariance matrices from limited, noisy data
Everson, Richard M.
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
The eigenvalue spectrum of covariance matrices is of central importance to a number of data analysis techniques, Usually, the sample covariance matrix is constructed from a limited number of noisy samples, We describe a method of inferring the true eigenvalue spectrum from the sample spectrum. Results of Silverstein, which characterize the eigenvalue spectrum of the noise covariance matrix, and inequalities between the eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices are used to infer probability densities for the eigenvalues of the noise-free covariance matrix, using Bayesian inference. Posterior densities for each eigenvalue are obtained, which yield error estimates. The evidence framework gives estimates of the noise variance anal permits model order selection by estimating the rank of the covariance matrix, The method is illustrated with numerical examples.
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Vol. 48 (7), pp. 2083 - 2091