A Futures Approach to Water Distribution and Sewer Network (RE)Design
Thesis or dissertation
University of Exeter
When designing urban water systems (i.e. water distribution and sewer systems) it is imperative that uncertainty is taken into consideration. However, this is a challenging problem due to the inherent uncertainty associated with both system loading requirements and the potential for physical components failure. It is therefore desirable to improve the reliability of each system in order to account for these uncertainties. Although it is possible to directly evaluate the reliability of a water distribution systems (WDS) (using reliability measures), the calculation processes involved are computationally intensive and therefore unsuitable for some state-of-the-art, iterative design approaches (such as optimisation). Consequently, interest has recently grown in the use of reliability indicators, which are simpler and faster to evaluate than conventional direct reliability methods. In this thesis, a novel measure (the RUF) is developed to quantify reliability in urban water systems with a view to enhance their robustness under a range of future scenarios (Policy Reform, Market Forces, Fortress World and New-Sustainability Paradigm). The considered four future scenarios were synthesized in the EPSRC supported multidisciplinary 4 year project: Urban Futures. Each investigated urban future scenario is characterised by a distinct household water demand and local demand distribution (emerging due to different urban forms evolving in future scenarios). In order to assess the impact of urban futures, RUF has been incorporated into Urban Water System (UWS) dynamic simulations for both WDSs and Foul Sewer Systems (FSSs) using open source codes of EPANET and SWMM. Additionally, in order to overcome extensive computational effort, resulting from the use of traditional reliability measures, a new holistic reliability indicator, the hydraulic power entropy (IHPE) has been developed and compared to existing reliability indicators. Additionally, the relationship between the new reliability indicator and the above mentioned RUF reliability measure is investigated. Results suggest that the magnitude of the IHPE in network solutions provides a holistic indication of the hydraulic performance and reliability for a WDS. However, the performance of optimal solutions under some Urban Futures indicates that additional design interventions are required in order to achieve desired future operation. This thesis also proposes a new holistic foul sewer system (FSS) reliability indicator (the IFSR). The IFSR represents sewer performance as a function of excess pipe capacity (in terms of available increase and also decrease in inflow). The indicator has been tested for two case studies (i.e. different sewer network layouts). Results suggest that the magnitude of IFSR has positive correlations with a number of identified key performance indicators (i.e. relating to capacity, velocity, blockages). Finally, an Integrated Design Approach (IDA) has been developed in order to assess the implications of applying design interventions on both a WDS and downstream FSS. The approach holistically considers present and future operation of each interconnected system. The approach was subsequently demonstrated using two proposed design interventions. Results suggest that, for the considered design interventions, there is trade-off between the simultaneous improvement of both WDS and FSS operation and reliability.
Memon, Fayyaz Ali
PhD in Engineering