How do abiotic environmental conditions influence shrimp susceptibility to disease? A critical analysis focussed on White Spot Disease
Millard, RS; Ellis, RP; Bateman, KS; et al.Bickley, LK; Tyler, CR; van Aerle, R; Santos, EM
Date: 6 April 2020
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) causes White Spot Disease (WSD) and is historically the most devastating disease in the shrimp industry. Global losses from this disease have previously exceeded $3 bn annually, having a major impact on a global industry worth US$19 bn per annum. Shrimp are cultured predominantly in enclosed ponds that ...
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) causes White Spot Disease (WSD) and is historically the most devastating disease in the shrimp industry. Global losses from this disease have previously exceeded $3 bn annually, having a major impact on a global industry worth US$19 bn per annum. Shrimp are cultured predominantly in enclosed ponds that are subject to considerable fluctuations in abiotic conditions and WSD outbreaks are increasingly linked to periods of extreme weather, which may cause major fluctuations in pond culture conditions. Combined with the intensity of production in these systems, the resulting suboptimal physicochemical conditions have a major bearing on the susceptibility of shrimp to infection and disease. Current knowledge indicates that pond temperature and salinity are major factors determining outbreak severity. WSSV appears to be most virulent in water temperatures between 25 and 28 °C and salinities far removed from the isoosmotic point of shrimp. Elevated temperatures (>30 °C) may protect against WSD, depending on the stage of infection, however the mechanisms mediating this effect have not been well established. Other factors relating to water quality that may play key roles in determining outbreak severity include dissolved oxygen concentration, nitrogenous compound concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH, but data on their impacts on WSSV susceptibility in cultured shrimps is scarce. This illustrates a major research gap in our understanding of the influence of environmental conditions on disease. For example, it is not clear whether temperature manipulations can be used effectively to prevent or mitigate WSD in cultured shrimp. Therefore, developing our understanding of the impact of environmental conditions on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV may provide insight for WSD mitigation when, even after decades of research, there is no effective practical prophylaxis or treatment.
College of Life and Environmental Sciences
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