Refinement of the critical genomic region for congenital hyperinsulinism in the Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome
Banerjee, I; Senniappan, S; Laver, TW; et al.Caswell, R; Zenker, M; Mohnike, K; Cheetham, T; Wakeling, MN; Ismail, D; Lennerz, B; Splitt, M; Berberoğlu, M; Empting, S; Wabitsch, M; Pötzsch, S; Shah, P; Siklar, Z; Verge, CF; Weedon, MN; Ellard, S; Hussain, K; Flanagan, SE
Date: 4 August 2020
Wellcome Open Research
F1000 Research / Wellcome Trust
Background: Large contiguous gene deletions at the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 9 result in the complex multi-organ condition chromosome 9p deletion syndrome. A range of clinical features can result from these deletions with the most common being facial dysmorphisms and neurological impairment. Congenital hyperinsulinism ...
Background: Large contiguous gene deletions at the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 9 result in the complex multi-organ condition chromosome 9p deletion syndrome. A range of clinical features can result from these deletions with the most common being facial dysmorphisms and neurological impairment. Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rarely reported feature of the syndrome with the genetic mechanism for the dysregulated insulin secretion being unknown. Methods: We studied the clinical and genetic characteristics of 12 individuals with chromosome 9p deletions who had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Using off-target reads generated from targeted next-generation sequencing of the genes known to cause hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (n=9), or microarray analysis (n=3), we mapped the minimal shared deleted region on chromosome 9 in this cohort. Targeted sequencing was performed in three patients to search for a recessive mutation unmasked by the deletion. Results: In 10/12 patients with hypoglycaemia, hyperinsulinism was confirmed biochemically. A range of extra-pancreatic features were also reported in these patients consistent with the diagnosis of the Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome. The minimal deleted region was mapped to 7.2 Mb, encompassing 38 protein-coding genes. In silico analysis of these genes highlighted SMARCA2 and RFX3 as potential candidates for the hypoglycaemia. Targeted sequencing performed on three of the patients did not identify a second disease-causing variant within the minimal deleted region. Conclusions: This study identifies 9p deletions as an important cause of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and increases the number of cases reported with 9p deletions and hypoglycaemia to 15 making this a more common feature of the syndrome than previously appreciated. Whilst the precise genetic mechanism of the dysregulated insulin secretion could not be determined in these patients, mapping the deletion breakpoints highlighted potential candidate genes for hypoglycaemia within the deleted region.
Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science
College of Medicine and Health
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