Age- and Sex- Related Differences in Muscle Phosphocreatine and Oxygenation Kinetics during High Intensity Exercise in Adolescents and Adults
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Biomedicine
The aim of this investigation was to examine the adaptation of the muscle phosphates (e.g. phosphocreatine (PCr) and ADP) implicated in regulating oxidative phosphorylation, and oxygenation at the onset of high intensity exercise in children and adults. The hypotheses were threefold: primary PCr kinetics would be faster in children than adults; the amplitude of the PCr slow component would be attenuated in children; and the amplitude of the deoxyhaemoglobin/myoglobin (HHb) slow component would be reduced in children. Eleven children (5 girls, 6 boys, 13 ± 1 years) and 11 adults (5 women, 6 men, 24 ± 4 years) completed two to four constant work rate exercise tests within a 1.5 T MR scanner. Quadriceps muscle energetics during high intensity exercise were monitored using 31P-MRS. Muscle oxygenation was monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. The time constant for the PCr response was not significantly different in boys (31 ± 10 s), girls (31 ± 10 s), men (44 ± 20 s) or women (29 ± 14 s, main effects: age, p = 0.37, sex, p = 0.25). The amplitude of the PCr slow component relative to end-exercise PCr was not significantly different between children (23 ± 23%) and adults (17 ± 13%, p = 0.47). End-exercise [PCr] was significantly lower, and [ADP] higher, in females (18 ± 4 mM and 53 ± 16 µM) than males (23 ± 4 mM, p = 0.02 and 37 ± 11 µM, p = 0.02), but did not differ with age ([PCr]: p = 0.96, [ADP]: p = 0.72). The mean response time for muscle tissue deoxygenation was significantly faster in children (22 ± 4 s) than adults (27 ± 7 s, p = 0.01). The results of this study show that the control of oxidative metabolism at the onset of high intensity exercise is adult-like in 13-year-old children, but that matching of oxygen delivery to extraction is more precise in adults.
This is the author's post-print version of an article published in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Biomedicine, 2010, Vol. 23, Issue 6, pp. 569–577 Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Blackwell. The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com
Vol. 23, Issue 6, pp. 569–577