Shallow-water gaseohydrothermal plume studies after massive eruption at Panarea, Aeolian Islands, Italy
Journal of Marine Systems
Reason for embargo
Journal guidelines / publisher's policy.
Marine water dynamics in the near field of a massive gas eruption near Panarea (Aeolian Islands volcanic arc, SE Tyrrhenian Sea) is described. ADCP current-meters were deployed during the paroxysmal phase in 2002 and 2003 a few meters from the degassing vent, recording day-long timeseries. Datasets were sorted to remove errors and select good quality ensembles over the entire water column. Standard deviation of error velocity was considered a proxy for inhomogeneous velocity fields over beams. Time series intervals had been selected when the basic ADCP assumptions were fulfilled and random errors minimized. Backscatter data were also processed to identify bubbles in the water column with the aim of locating bubble-free ensembles. Reliable timeseries are selected combining these data. Two possible scenarios have been described: firstly, a high dynamic situation with visible surface diverging rings of waves, entrainment on the lower part of the gas column, detrainment in the upper part and a stagnation line (SL) at mid depth where currents were close to zero and most of the gas bubbles spread laterally; secondly, a lower dynamic situation with water entraining into the gas plume at all depths and no surface rings of diverging waves. Reasons for these different dynamics may be ascribed to changes in gas fluxes (one order of magnitude higher in 2002). Description of SL is important to quantify its position in the water column and timing for entrainment-detrainment, and it can be measured by ADCP and calculated from models.
Italian ISMAR-CNR, La Spezia. http://www.ismar.cnr.it/organization/geographic-units/ismar-la-spezia
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier. NOTICE: This is the author’s version of a work accepted for publication by Elsevier. Changes resulting from the publishing process, including peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting and other quality control mechanisms, may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Marine Systems, 2014, Vol.131, pp. 1-9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.10.001
Vol.131, pp. 1-9