Nurse led interventions to improve control of blood pressure in people with hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis
Taylor, Rod S.
BMJ Publishing Group
© Clark et al 2010 This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/legalcode.
OBJECTIVE: To review trials of nurse led interventions for hypertension in primary care to clarify the evidence base, establish whether nurse prescribing is an important intervention, and identify areas requiring further study. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, British Nursing Index, Cinahl, Embase, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials of nursing interventions for hypertension compared with usual care in adults. DATA EXTRACTION: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, percentages reaching target blood pressure, and percentages taking antihypertensive drugs. Intervention effects were calculated as relative risks or weighted mean differences, as appropriate, and sensitivity analysis by study quality was undertaken. DATA SYNTHESIS: Compared with usual care, interventions that included a stepped treatment algorithm showed greater reductions in systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference -8.2 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval -11.5 to -4.9), nurse prescribing showed greater reductions in blood pressure (systolic -8.9 mm Hg, -12.5 to -5.3 and diastolic -4.0 mm Hg, -5.3 to -2.7), telephone monitoring showed higher achievement of blood pressure targets (relative risk 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.43), and community monitoring showed greater reductions in blood pressure (weighted mean difference, systolic -4.8 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval -7.0 to -2.7 and diastolic -3.5 mm Hg, -4.5 to -2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Nurse led interventions for hypertension require an algorithm to structure care. Evidence was found of improved outcomes with nurse prescribers from non-UK healthcare settings. Good quality evidence from UK primary health care is insufficient to support widespread employment of nurses in the management of hypertension within such healthcare systems.
Scientific Foundation Board of the Royal College of General Practitioners
South West GP Trust
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Vol. 341: c3995
Place of publication