Hydrogen sulfide and the vasculature: a novel vasculoprotective entity and regulator of nitric oxide bioavailability?
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Wiley Open Access
© 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a well known and pungent toxic gas that has recently been shown to be synthesised in man from the amino acids cystathionine, homocysteine and cysteine by at least two distinct enzymes; cystathionine-gamma-lyase and cystathionine-beta-synthase. In the past few years, H(2)S has emerged as a novel and increasingly important mediator in the cardiovascular system but delineating the precise physiology and pathophysiology of H(2)S is proving to be complex and difficult to unravel with disparate findings reported with cell types, tissue types and animal species reported. Therefore, in this review we summarize the mechanisms by which H(2)S has been proposed to regulate blood pressure and cardiac function, discuss the mechanistic discrepancies reported in the literature as well as the therapeutic potential of H(2)S. We also examine the methods of H2S detection in biological fluids, processes for H(2)S removal and discuss the reported blood levels of H(2)S in man and animal models of cardiovascular pathology. We also highlight the complex interaction of H(2)S with nitric oxide in regulating cardiovascular function in health and disease.
This is a freely-available open access publication. Please cite the published version which is available via the DOI link in this record.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 2009, Vol. 13, pp. 488 - 507
Place of publication