Extinction of experience: the loss of human–nature interactions
Gaston, Kevin J.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Ecological Society of America
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by the Ecological Society of America
A high proportion of people are becoming progressively less likely to have direct contact with nature 15 in their everyday lives. More than 20 years ago, Robert M. Pyle termed this ongoing alienation “the 16 extinction of experience”. However, the phenomenon has continued to receive surprisingly limited 17 attention. Here, we present current understanding of the extinction of experience, with particular 18 emphasis on its causes and consequences, as well as suggesting future research directions. Our 19 review illustrates that the loss of interactions with nature does not just diminish a remarkable range 20 of health and wellbeing advantages, but also discourages people’s positive emotions, attitudes, and 21 behavior with regard to the environment, implying a cycle of disaffection towards nature. Such 22 serious implications highlight the significance of reconnecting people with nature, and the 23 importance of focusing research and public policy on addressing and building greater awareness 24 and better understanding of extinction of experience.
Japan Society of Promotion of Science
Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp.94–101