Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in children following near-total pancreatectomy for diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism.
Arya, VB; Senniappan, S; Demirbilek, H; et al.Alam, S; Flanagan, SE; Ellard, S; Hussain, K
Date: 19 May 2014
Public Library of Science
CONTEXT: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycaemia, has two main histological subtypes: diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI, if medically unresponsive, is managed with near-total pancreatectomy. Post-pancreatectomy, in addition to persistent hypoglycaemia, there is a very high risk of diabetes mellitus ...
CONTEXT: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycaemia, has two main histological subtypes: diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI, if medically unresponsive, is managed with near-total pancreatectomy. Post-pancreatectomy, in addition to persistent hypoglycaemia, there is a very high risk of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. SETTING: International referral centre for the management of CHI. PATIENTS: Medically unresponsive diffuse CHI patients managed with near-total pancreatectomy between 1994 and 2012. INTERVENTION: Near-total pancreatectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Persistent hypoglycaemia post near-total pancreatectomy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, clinical and biochemical (faecal elastase 1) pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. RESULTS: Of more than 300 patients with CHI managed during this time period, 45 children had medically unresponsive diffuse disease and were managed with near-total pancreatectomy. After near-total pancreatectomy, 60% of children had persistent hypoglycaemia requiring medical interventions. The incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was 96% at 11 years after surgery. Thirty-two patients (72%) had biochemical evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (Faecal elastase 1<100 µg/g). Clinical exocrine insufficiency was observed in 22 (49%) patients. No statistically significant difference in weight and height standard deviation score (SDS) was found between untreated subclinical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients and treated clinical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of diffuse CHI patients after near-total pancreatectomy is very unsatisfactory. The incidence of persistent hypoglycaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is very high. The presence of clinical rather than biochemical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency should inform decisions about pancreatic enzyme supplementation.
Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science
College of Medicine and Health
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