Reprint of "Rare earth elements in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Devonian Kola Alkaline Province, Russia: Examples from Kovdor, Khibina, Vuoriyarvi and Turiy Mys complexes"
Ore Geology Reviews
The Devonian (ca. 385-360 Ma) Kola Alkaline Province includes 22 plutonic ultrabasic-alkaline complexes, some of which also contain carbonatites and rarely phoscorites. The latter are composite silicate-oxide-phosphate-carbonate rocks, occurring in close space-time genetic relations with various carbonatites. Several carbonatites types are recognized at Kola, including abundant calcite carbonatites (early- and late-stage), with subordinate amounts of late-stage dolomite carbonatites, and rarely magnesite, siderite and rhodochrosite carbonatites. In phoscorites and early-stage carbonatites the rare earth elements (REE) are distributed among the major minerals including calcite (up to 490 ppm), apatite (up to 4400 ppm in Kovdor and 3.5 wt.% REE2O3 in Khibina), and dolomite (up to 77 ppm), as well as accessory pyrochlore (up to 9.1 wt.% REE2O3) and zirconolite (up to 17.8 wt.% REE2O3). Late-stage carbonatites, at some localities, are strongly enriched in REE (up to 5.2 wt.% REE2O3 in Khibina) and the REE are major components in diverse major and minor minerals such as burbankite, carbocernaite, Ca- and Ba-fluocarbonates, ancylite and others. The rare earth minerals form two distinct mineral assemblages: primary (crystallized from a melt or carbohydrothermal fluid) and secondary (formed during metasomatic replacement). Stable (C-O) and radiogenic (Sr-Nd) isotopes data indicate that the REE minerals and their host calcite and/or dolomite have crystallized from a melt derived from the same mantle source and are co-genetic.
We are grateful to A.G. Bulkah, N.I. Krasnova, V.N. Yakovenchuk, G.Yu. Ivanuk, Ya.A. Pakhomosvky, P.I. Karchevsky, M.A. Sitnikova, E.S. Sukharzhevskaya for valuable help during study of Kola phoscorites-carbonatite complexes. Initially this work has been supported by INTAS (97-0722) and subsequently by the SYS-Resource (EC), Russian Federal Grant-in-Aid Program "Human Capital" (8313), St. Petersburg State University, including Geomodel centre, and the Natural History Museum, London.
NOTE: The publisher would like to inform the readership that this article is a reprint of a previously published article. An error occurred on the publisher’s side which resulted in the publication of this article in a wrong issue. As a consequence, the publisher would like to make this reprint available for the reader's convenience and for the continuity of the special issue. For citation purposes, please use the original publication details; Ore Geology Reviews, 61 (2014) 204-225, doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2014.02.002. The publisher sincerely apologizes to the readership and in particular to the author of the respective article and deeply regrets the inconvenience caused.
Vol. 64, pp. 477 - 498