An analysis of domestic water consumption in Jaipur, India
British Journal of Environment and Climate Change
Aim: To explore the relation between water consumption and water use behaviour and attitudes, and devices applied in households in urban areas in India. Methodology and study site: This paper presents the results of a domestic water consumption survey carried out in Jaipur, India. A questionnaire containing over 60 questions was developed to collect information on households’ characteristics (e.g. family size, household type, and number of children), indoor and outdoor water use activities and their respective frequencies and durations. Information was also gathered on the volume of water used in each of these activities. Over 90 households of different types (standalone houses and apartments in a university campus and Jaipur city) participated in the survey. The survey results were analysed using cluster analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results show that the per capita consumption varies considerably with household type and size. The average water consumption was 183 and 215 litres/person/day for standalone households and apartments, respectively. Water used in bathing and WC's represent the highest proportion of water consumption in both stand-alone houses and apartments. Over 40% of the households reported no use of showers. The per capita water consumption is inversely related to family size especially in stand-alone houses. Conclusion: The information pertaining to water use habits and the qualitative and quantitative analysis can be used as an input to a proposed domestic water efficiency tool (DoWET) which can generate optimal water efficient composite strategies keeping in view a range of sustainability indicators including water saving potential, cost and associated energy consumption of the water saving devices and fixtures available in India.
The work presented here was undertaken to inform the research being carried out in Water4India project supported by EC as FP7 project bearing grant agreement no: 308496.
Vol. 6 (2), pp. 97-115