Modern facilities for experimental measurement of dynamic loads induced by humans: a literature review
Shock and Vibration
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This paper provides a critical overview of available technology and facilities for determining human-induced dynamic forces of civil engineering structures, such as due to walking, running, jumping and bouncing. In addition to traditional equipment for direct force measurements comprising force plate(s), foot pressure insoles and instrumented treadmills, the review also investigates possibility of using optical motion tracking systems (marker-based and marker-free optoelectronic technology) and non-optical motion tracking systems (inertial sensors) to reproduce contact forces between humans and structures based on body kinematics data and known body mass distribution. Although significant technological advancements have been made in the last decade, the literature survey showed that the state-of-the-art force measurements are often limited to individuals in artificial laboratory environments. Experimental identification of seriously needed group- and crowd-induced force data recorded on as-built structures, such as footbridges, grandstands and floors, still remains a challenge due to the complexity of human actions and the lack of adequate equipment.
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for grant reference EP/E018734/1 (‘Human Walking and Running Forces: Novel Experimental Characterisation and Application in Civil Engineering Dynamics’).
This is the final version of the article. Available from Hindawi Publishing Corporation via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 20 (1), pp. 53-67