Psychiatric morbidity in children with KCNJ11 neonatal diabetes
Wiley for Diabetes UK
AIMS: Mutations in the KCNJ11 gene, which encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the pancreatic KATP channel, cause neonatal diabetes. KCNJ11 is also expressed in the brain, and ~ 20% of those affected have neurological features, which may include features suggestive of psychiatric disorder. No previous studies have systematically characterized the psychiatric morbidity in people with KCNJ11 neonatal diabetes. We aimed to characterize the types of psychiatric disorders present in children with KCNJ11 mutations, and explore their impact on families. METHODS: The parents and teachers of 10 children with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were compared with normative data. Diagnoses from the Development and Wellbeing Assessment were compared with known clinical diagnoses. RESULTS: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores indicated high levels of psychopathology and impact. Psychiatric disorder(s) were present in all six children with the V59M or R201C mutation, and the presence of more than one psychiatric disorder was common. Only two children had received a formal clinical diagnosis, with a further one awaiting assessment, and the coexistence of more than one psychiatric disorder had been missed. Neurodevelopmental (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism) and anxiety disorders predominated. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic assessment using standardized validated questionnaires reveals a range of psychiatric morbidity in children with KCNJ11 neonatal diabetes. This is under-recognized clinically and has a significant impact on affected children and their families. An integrated collaborative approach to clinical care is needed to manage the complex needs of people with KCNJ11 neonatal diabetes. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ATH is supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator award (Grant number 098395/Z/12/Z). SEF has a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (Grant Number 105636/Z/14/Z). MHS and BAK are supported by the NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via the DOI in this record.
Published online April 2016