Fluoxetine exhibits pharmacological effects and trait-based sensitivity in a marine worm
Environmental Science and Technology
American Chemical Society
Global production of pharmacologically active compounds exceeds 100 000 tons annually, a proportion of which enters aquatic environments through patient use, improper medicine disposal, and production. These compounds are designed to have mode-of-action (MoA) effects on specific biological pathways, with potential to impact nontarget species. Here, we used MoA and trait-based approaches to quantify uptake and biological effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in filter and deposit feeding marine worms (Hediste diversicolor). Worms exposed to 10 μg L(-1), accumulated fluoxetine with a body burden over 270 times greater than exposure concentrations, resulting in ∼10% increased coelomic fluid serotonin, a pharmacological effect. Observed effects included weight loss (up to 2% at 500 μg L(-1)), decreased feeding rate (68% at 500 μg L(-1)), and altered metabolism (oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and O/N from 10 μg L(-1)). Bioconcentration of fluoxetine was dependent on route of uptake, with filter feeding worms experiencing up to 130 times greater body burden ratios and increased magnitudes of effects than deposit feeders, a trait-based sensitivity likely as a consequence of fluoxetine partitioning to sediment. This study highlights how novel approaches such as MoA and trait-based methods can supplement environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals.
This study was funded by a BBSRC CASE award (BB/J500458/1) and the AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) Research Programme. Thanks to Dr. Robert Ellis and Darren Rowe for technical assistance; Dr. Lina Gunnarsson for advice on SERT preservation and Prof. John Sumpter for manuscript advice. Acknowledgement extended to Dr. Thomas Rundberget at NIVA for chemical analysis.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this record. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
Vol: 50 (15), pp 8344–8352