Biogeochemical Transformations in the History of the Ocean
Annual Review of Marine Science
Reason for embargo
Under indefinite embargo due to publisher policy.
The ocean has undergone several profound biogeochemical transformations in its 4-billion-year history, and these were an integral part of the coevolution of life and the planet. This review focuses on changes in ocean redox state as controlled by changes in biological activity, nutrient concentrations, and atmospheric O2. Motivated by disparate interpretations of available geochemical data, we aim to show how quantitative modeling-spanning microbial mats, shelf seas, and the open ocean-can help constrain past ocean biogeochemical redox states and show what caused transformations between them. We outline key controls on ocean redox structure and review pertinent proxies and their interpretation. We then apply this quantitative framework to three key questions: How did the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis transform ocean biogeochemistry? How did the Great Oxidation transform ocean biogeochemistry? And how was ocean biogeochemistry transformed in the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic?
This work was supported by the Leverhulme Trust (RPG-203-106). We thank Andy Ridgwell for developing the GENIE model biogeochemistry and for advice on its application to deep time, Jamie Wilson for providing the offline transport matrices, and Fanny Monteiro for developing the model nitrogen cycle.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Annual Reviews via the DOI in this record.