Electrochemical doping of graphene
The electrical properties of graphene are known to be modified by chemical species that interact with it. We investigate the effect of doping of graphene-based devices by toluene (C6H5CH3). We show that this effect has a complicated character. Toluene is seen to act as a donor, transferring electrons to the graphene. However, the degree of doping is seen to depend on the magnitude and polarity of an electric field applied between the graphene and a nearby electrode. This can be understood in terms of an electrochemical reaction mediated by the graphene crystal.
The authors thank H. Pinto, R. Jones, A. S. Shytov, S. J. Green and D. W. Boukhvalov for useful discussions, P. R. Wilkins for technical support, and the EPSRC (grant numbers EP/G036101/1 and EP/G041482/1) for funding.