The effects of concussion dosage, gender, reported symptoms and expectations on long-term outcomes following sport-related concussion
Broughton, James William
Thesis or dissertation
University of Exeter
Reason for embargo
I intend to publish this research.
Objective: The long-term cognitive effects of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and sport-related concussion (SRC) are not always clear. Higher-level longer-term cognitive difficulties can indicate enduring neurological damage, as part of a post-concussion syndrome (PCS). This study aimed to investigate whether cognitive performance and self-reported PCS symptoms of athletes (rugby players) relate to SRC and whether gender moderates these effects. Method: Eighty-six participants completed a questionnaire detailing SRC history (frequency and severity) and rated long-term symptoms using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) symptom evaluation scales, before completing the CogState Brief Battery and STOP-IT (stop-signal response inhibition task). Results: No significant relationships between SRC dosage (frequency/severity), self-reported PCS symptoms, and cognitive test performance were identified. A greater proportion of males reported SRC compared to females, but no effect of gender was found on any of the cognitive outcome measures or self-reports of PCS symptoms. Conclusions: The results show that SRC has no observable long-term effects on cognitive test performance or PCS symptom self-reports. The analysis may have lacked power to detect effects. Analysis of individual performance over time against baseline scores may be more relevant for accurate diagnosis than relying on normative test scores. Recommendations for future research were made.
Additional funding received via Postgraduate Research Enhancement Fund (PREF), University of Exeter