Isolation of Salmonella mutants resistant to the inhibitory effect of Salicylidene acylhydrazides on flagella-mediated motility.
van Rietschoten, KN
Public Library of Science
© 2013 Martinez-Argudo et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is the final version of the article, available from Public Library of Science via the DOI in this record.
Salicylidene acylhydrazides identified as inhibitors of virulence-mediating type III secretion systems (T3SSs) potentially target their inner membrane export apparatus. They also lead to inhibition of flagellar T3SS-mediated swimming motility in Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhimurium. We show that INP0404 and INP0405 act by reducing the number of flagella/cell. These molecules still inhibit motility of a Salmonella ΔfliH-fliI-fliJ/flhB((P28T)) strain, which lacks three soluble components of the flagellar T3S apparatus, suggesting that they are not the target of this drug family. We implemented a genetic screen to search for the inhibitors' molecular target(s) using motility assays in the ΔfliH-fliI/flhB((P28T)) background. Both mutants identified were more motile than the background strain in the absence of the drugs, although HM18 was considerably more so. HM18 was more motile than its parent strain in the presence of both drugs while DI15 was only insensitive to INP0405. HM18 was hypermotile due to hyperflagellation, whereas DI15 was not hyperflagellated. HM18 was also resistant to a growth defect induced by high concentrations of the drugs. Whole-genome resequencing of HM18 indicated two alterations within protein coding regions, including one within atpB, which encodes the inner membrane a-subunit of the F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase. Reverse genetics indicated that the alteration in atpB was responsible for all of HM18's phenotypes. Genome sequencing of DI15 uncovered a single A562P mutation within a gene encoding the flagellar inner membrane protein FlhA, the direct role of which in mediating drug insensitivity could not be confirmed. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of T3SS export apparatus function and drug target identification.
Funding: IMA and XL were supported by Wellcome Trust Project Grant 088266 to IMA and AJB. AKJV was funded by an E.C. Marie Curie postdoctoral fellowship (MEIF-CT-2005-023694) and an EMBO short-term fellowship (244-2007). XL was supported additionally by Wellcome Trust Project Grant 088231 to AJB and KN. DR was supported by a University of Bristol Centenary Postgraduate Studentship. This work was also supported in part by MRC project grants G0701243 and MR-J002097-1 to AJB and AJB and KN, respectively, and by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (22570161 and 23121516 to TM, and 21227006 to KN) and Targeted Proteins Research Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan and by Takeda Science Foundation (to TM). YVM is a Research Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Vol. 8, No. 1, Article no. e52179
Place of publication