Dynamic in-situ sensing of fluid-dispersed 2D materials integrated on microfluidic Si chip
Nature Publishing Group
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In this work, we propose a novel approach for wafer-scale integration of 2D materials on CMOS photonics chip utilising methods of synthetic chemistry and microfluidics technology. We have successfully demonstrated that this approach can be used for integration of any fluid-dispersed 2D nano-objects on silicon-on-insulator photonics platform. We demonstrate for the first time that the design of an optofluidic waveguide system can be optimised to enable simultaneous in-situ Raman spectroscopy monitoring of 2D dispersed flakes during the device operation. Moreover, for the first time, we have successfully demonstrated the possibility of label-free 2D flake detection via selective enhancement of the Stokes Raman signal at specific wavelengths. We discovered an ultra-high signal sensitivity to the xyz alignment of 2D flakes within the optofluidic waveguide, which in turn enables precise in-situ alignment detection for the first practicable realisation of 3D photonic microstructure shaping based on 2D-fluid composites and CMOS photonics platform while also representing a useful technological tool for the control of liquid phase deposition of 2D materials.
We acknowledge financial support from: The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of the United Kingdom via the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Electromagnetic Metamaterials (Grant No. EP/L015331/1) and also via Grant Nos. EP/N035569/1, EP/G036101/1, EP/M002438/1, and EP/M001024/1, Science Foundation Ireland Grant No. 12/IA/1300, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Grant No. 14.B25.31.0002) and the Royal Society International Exchange Grant 2015/R3. The microfluidic structures were fabricated at Tyndall National Institute under the Science Foundation Ireland NAP368 and NAP94 programs.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Nature Publishing Group via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 7, Art. No. 42120