Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio detects absolute insulin deficiency in Type 2 diabetes
Wiley for Diabetes UK
© 2013 The Authors.Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK. Open access article licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY licence.
AIMS: To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of absolute insulin deficiency in long-standing Type 2 diabetes, using a strategy based on home urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio measurement. METHODS: We assessed the urinary C-peptide creatinine ratios, from urine samples taken at home 2 h after the largest meal of the day, in 191 insulin-treated subjects with Type 2 diabetes (diagnosis age ≥45 years, no insulin in the first year). If the initial urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio was ≤0.2 nmol/mmol (representing absolute insulin deficiency), the assessment was repeated. A standardized mixed-meal tolerance test with 90-min stimulated serum C-peptide measurement was performed in nine subjects with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio ≤ 0.2 nmol/mmol (and in nine controls with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio >0.2 nmol/mmol) to confirm absolute insulin deficiency. RESULTS: A total of 2.7% of participants had absolute insulin deficiency confirmed by a mixed-meal tolerance test. They were identified initially using urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio: 11/191 subjects (5.8%) had two consistent urinary C-peptide creatinine ratios ≤ 0.2 nmol/mmol; 9 of these 11 subjects completed a mixed-meal tolerance test and had a median stimulated serum C-peptide of 0.18 nmol/l. Five of these 9 had stimulated serum C-peptide <0.2 nmol/l and 9/9 subjects with urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio >0.2 had endogenous insulin secretion confirmed by the mixed-meal tolerance test. Compared with subjects with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio >0.2 nmol/mmol, those with confirmed absolute insulin deficiency had a shorter time to insulin treatment (median 2.5 vs. 6 years, P=0.005) and lower BMI (25.1 vs. 29.1 kg/m(2) , P=0.04). Two out of the five patients with absolute insulin deficiency were glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Absolute insulin deficiency may occur in long-standing Type 2 diabetes, and cannot be reliably predicted by clinical features or autoantibodies. Absolute insulin deficiency in Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis, as in Type 1 diabetes. Its recognition should help guide treatment, education and management. The urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio is a practical non-invasive method to aid detection of absolute insulin deficiency, with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio > 0.2 nmol/mmol being a reliable indicator of retained endogenous insulin secretion.
This project was supported by the Peninsula National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Facility, the Department of Health, and the Peninsula Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (PenCLAHRC). A.T.H. is an NIHR and a Wellcome Trust senior investigator. A.T.H., B.A.K. and B.M.S. are supported by the NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility. NIHR have supported S.V.H. and A.G.J. through academic clinical fellowships, and support A.G.H. through a doctoral research fellowship. R.E.J.B was supported by Diabetes UK through a doctoral research fellowship.
This is the final version of the article. Available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 30, pp. 1342 - 1348
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