Genomic analysis of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea
van Kan, JAL
de Vries, RP
ten Have, A
Da Silva, C
Public Library of Science
© 2011 Amselem et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi notable for their wide host ranges and environmental persistence. These attributes have made these species models for understanding the complexity of necrotrophic, broad host-range pathogenicity. Despite their similarities, the two species differ in mating behaviour and the ability to produce asexual spores. We have sequenced the genomes of one strain of S. sclerotiorum and two strains of B. cinerea. The comparative analysis of these genomes relative to one another and to other sequenced fungal genomes is provided here. Their 38-39 Mb genomes include 11,860-14,270 predicted genes, which share 83% amino acid identity on average between the two species. We have mapped the S. sclerotiorum assembly to 16 chromosomes and found large-scale co-linearity with the B. cinerea genomes. Seven percent of the S. sclerotiorum genome comprises transposable elements compared to <1% of B. cinerea. The arsenal of genes associated with necrotrophic processes is similar between the species, including genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and oxalic acid production. Analysis of secondary metabolism gene clusters revealed an expansion in number and diversity of B. cinerea-specific secondary metabolites relative to S. sclerotiorum. The potential diversity in secondary metabolism might be involved in adaptation to specific ecological niches. Comparative genome analysis revealed the basis of differing sexual mating compatibility systems between S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. The organization of the mating-type loci differs, and their structures provide evidence for the evolution of heterothallism from homothallism. These data shed light on the evolutionary and mechanistic bases of the genetically complex traits of necrotrophic pathogenicity and sexual mating. This resource should facilitate the functional studies designed to better understand what makes these fungi such successful and persistent pathogens of agronomic crops.
The Sclerotinia sclerotiorum genome project was supported by the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (USDA-NRI 2004). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ESTs were funded by a grant to JA Rollins from USDA specific cooperative agreement 58-5442-4-281. The genome sequence of Botrytis cinerea strain T4 was funded by Genoscope, CEA, France. M Viaud was funded by the “Projet INRA Jeune-Equipe”. PM Coutinho and B Henrissat were funded by the ANR to project E-Tricel (grant ANR-07-BIOE-006). The CAZy database is funded in part by GIS-IBiSA. DM Soanes and NJ Talbot were partly funded by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. KM Plummer was partially funded by the New Zealand Bio-Protection Research Centre, http://bioprotection.org.nz/. BJ Howlett and A Sexton were partially funded by the Australian Grains Research and Development Corporation, www.grdc.com.au. L Kohn was partially funded by NSERC Discovery Grant (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) - Grant number 458078. M Dickman was supported by the NSF grant MCB-092391 and BARD grant US-4041-07C. O Yarden was supported by BARD grant US-4041-07C. EG Danchin obtained financial support from the European Commission (STREP FungWall grant, contract: LSHB - CT- 2004 - 511952). A Botrytis Genome Workshop (Kaiserslautern, Germany) was supported by a grant from the German Science Foundation (DFG; HA1486) to M Hahn.
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Vol. 7, e1002230
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