Dietary nitrate supplementation: effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
American Physiological Society
We investigated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation on the concentration of plasma nitrite ([NO2 (-)]), oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics, and exercise tolerance in normoxia (N) and hypoxia (H). In a double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy subjects completed cycle exercise tests, twice in N (20.9% O2) and twice in H (13.1% O2). Subjects ingested either 140 ml/day of NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (8.4 mmol NO3; BR) or NO3 (-)-depleted beetroot juice (PL) for 3 days prior to moderate-intensity and severe-intensity exercise tests in H and N. Preexercise plasma [NO2 (-)] was significantly elevated in H-BR and N-BR compared with H-PL (P < 0.01) and N-PL (P < 0.01). The rate of decline in plasma [NO2 (-)] was greater during severe-intensity exercise in H-BR [-30 ± 22 nM/min, 95% confidence interval (CI); -44, -16] compared with H-PL (-7 ± 10 nM/min, 95% CI; -13, -1; P < 0.01) and in N-BR (-26 ± 19 nM/min, 95% CI; -38, -14) compared with N-PL (-1 ± 6 nM/min, 95% CI; -5, 2; P < 0.01). During moderate-intensity exercise, steady-state pulmonary V̇o2 was lower in H-BR (1.91 ± 0.28 l/min, 95% CI; 1.77, 2.13) compared with H-PL (2.05 ± 0.25 l/min, 95% CI; 1.93, 2.26; P = 0.02), and V̇o2 kinetics was faster in H-BR (τ: 24 ± 13 s, 95% CI; 15, 32) compared with H-PL (31 ± 11 s, 95% CI; 23, 38; P = 0.04). NO3 (-) supplementation had no significant effect on V̇o2 kinetics during severe-intensity exercise in hypoxia, or during moderate-intensity or severe-intensity exercise in normoxia. Tolerance to severe-intensity exercise was improved by NO3 (-) in hypoxia (H-PL: 197 ± 28; 95% CI; 173, 220 vs. H-BR: 214 ± 43 s, 95% CI; 177, 249; P = 0.04) but not normoxia. The metabolism of NO2 (-) during exercise is altered by NO3 (-) supplementation, exercise, and to a lesser extent, hypoxia. In hypoxia, NO3 (-) supplementation enhances V̇o2 kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise and improves severe-intensity exercise tolerance. These findings may have important implications for individuals exercising at altitude.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the American Physiological Society via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 307 (7), pp. R920 - R930
Place of publication