Predicting the targeting of tail-anchored proteins to subcellular compartments in mammalian cells
Journal of Cell Science
Company of Biologists
© 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single transmembrane domain (TMD) at the Cterminus, anchoring them to organelle membranes where they mediate a variety of critical cellular processes. Mutations in individual TA proteins cause a number of severe inherited disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms and signals facilitating proper TA protein targeting are not fully understood, in particular in mammals. Here, we identify additional TA proteins at peroxisomes or shared by multiple organelles in mammals and reveal that a combination of TMD hydrophobicity and tail charge determines targeting to distinct organelles. Specifically, an increase in tail charge can override a hydrophobic TMD signal and re-direct a protein from the ER to peroxisomes or mitochondria and vice versa. We demonstrate that subtle alterations in those physicochemical parameters can shift TA protein targeting between organelles, explaining why peroxisomes and mitochondria share many TA proteins. Our analyses enabled us to allocate characteristic physicochemical parameters to different organelle groups. This classification allows for the first time, successful prediction of the location of uncharacterized TA proteins.
We thank colleagues who provided materials (see Tables S1-S4) and acknowledge support from A. C. Magalhães, M. Almeida, D. Tuerker, S. Kuehl and C. Davies. This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/K006231/1 to M.S.), a Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Award (WT097835MF, WT105618MA to M.S.), the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and FEDER/COMPETE (PTDC/BIA-BCM/118605/2010 to M.S.; SFRH/BD/37647/2007 to N.B.; SFRH/BPD/77619/2011 and UID/BIM/04501/2013 to D.R.). M.W., E.A.G., and M.S. are supported by Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) action PerFuMe (316723).
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Company of Biologists via the DOI in this record.
Published online March 21, 2017