Development of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pregnane X receptor (cPXR) transactivation reporter assay and its activation by azole fungicides and pharmaceutical chemicals.
Toxicology in Vitro
Elsevier for European Society for Toxicology in Vitro
Open Access funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. Under a Creative Commons license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
In mammals, the pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor with a key role in regulating expression of several genes involved in drug biotransformation. PXR is present in fish and some genes known to be under its control can be up-regulated by mammalian PXR ligands. Despite this, direct involvement of PXR in drug biotransformation in fish has yet to be established. Here, the full length PXR sequence was cloned from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and used in a luciferase reporter assay to elucidate its role in xenobiotic metabolism in fish. A reporter assay for human PXR (hPXR) was also established to compare transactivation between human and carp (cPXR) isoforms. Rifampicin activated hPXR as expected, but not cPXR. Conversely, clotrimazole (CTZ) activated both isoforms and was more potent on cPXR, with an EC50 within the range of concentrations of CTZ measured in the aquatic environment. Responses to other azoles tested were similar between both isoforms. A range of pharmaceuticals tested either failed to activate, or were very weakly active, on the cPXR or hPXR. Overall, these results indicate that the cPXR may differ from the hPXR in its responses and/or sensitivity to induction by different environmental chemicals, with implications for risk assessment because of species differences.
JC was funded by a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Case studentship supported by AstraZeneca UK Ltd. (grant reference BB/G529332), and co-supported by the AstraZeneca Safety Health and Environment Research Program. AL was supported by grants from the Natural Environment Research Council (NE/D002818/1 and NE/E016634/1) and DEFRA awarded to CRT. Defra (UK) funded a research visit of SM to the University of Exeter under the UK-J programme. COS-7 cells were a gift from Inês Castro, University of Exeter. AstraZeneca Ltd. develops, produces, and markets a wide range of pharmaceutical agents.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 41, pp. 114 - 122
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