An integrated model to evaluate water-energy-food nexus at a household scale
Environmental Modelling and Software
Open access under a Creative Commons license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
To achieve a sustainable supply and effectively manage water, energy and food (WEF) demand, interactions between WEF need to be understood. This study developed an integrated model, capturing the interactions between WEF at end-use level at a household scale. The model is based on a survey of 419 households conducted to investigate WEF over winter and summer for the city of Duhok, Iraq. A bottom-up approach was used to develop this system dynamics-based model. The model estimates WEF demand and the generated organic waste and wastewater quantities. It also investigates the impact of change in user behaviour, diet, income, family size and climate. The simulation results show a good agreement with the historical data. Using the model, the impact of Global Scenario Group (GSG) scenarios was investigated. The results suggest that the ‘fortress world’ scenario (an authoritarian response to the threat of breakdown) had the highest impact on WEF.
This work was financially supported by the Human Capacity Development Program in Higher Education (HCED) in Kurdistan, Iraq. We acknowledge the support for this work provided by Dr. Sarah Ward and Ziyad Ahmed.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 93, pp. 366 - 380