ADHD in children and young people: Prevalence, Care Pathways & Service Provision
The Lancet Psychiatry
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Limited except certain content provided by third parties.
Reason for embargo
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood behavioural disorder – systematic reviews indicate that the community prevalence of ADHD globally is between 2% to 7%, with an average of around 5%. In addition, a further 5% of children have significant difficulties with over-activity, inattention and impulsivity that are just sub-threshold to meet full diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Estimates of the administrative (clinically diagnosed and/or recorded) prevalence vary worldwide and although increasing over time, ADHD is still relatively under-recognised and under-diagnosed in most countries, particularly in girls and older children. ADHD often persists into adulthood and is a risk factor for other mental health disorders and negative outcomes including educational under-achievement, difficulties with employment and relationships, and criminality. The timely recognition and treatment of children with ADHD-type difficulties provides an opportunity to improve their long-term outcomes. This review includes a systematic review of the community and administrative prevalence of ADHD in children and adolescents; an overview of the barriers to accessing care for ADHD; a description of costs associated with ADHD; and a broad discussion of evidence-based pathways for the delivery of clinical care, including a focus on key issues for two specific age groups - pre-school children and adolescents requiring transition of care from child to adult services.
Dr Vibhore Prasad reported having received a research grant support administered via the University of Nottingham from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Doctoral Research Fellowship scheme.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.