Content-specificity in verbal recall: a randomized controlled study.
Public Library of Science
Copyright: © 2013 Jan Zirk-Sadowski. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type of recall and content, in which the recall of digits was superior to the recall of letters in verbal short-term memory but not in verbal working memory. These results demonstrate that the recall of information from verbal short-term memory is content-specific, whilst the recall of information from verbal working memory is content-general.
This research was funded by a Jolanta and Leszek Czarnecki Foundation studentship to JZ and Medical Research Council grant G90951 awarded to DS. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Vol. 8, Iss. 11, pp. e79528 -
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