Comparison of the Physical and Chemical Properties, Performance, and Emissions of Ethyl Levulinate–Biodiesel–Diesel and n -Butanol–Biodiesel–Diesel Blends
Energy and Fuels
American Chemical Society
Reason for embargo
In this study, fuel blends EL5-B10-D85 (5 vol % ethyl levulinate, 10 vol % biodiesel, and 85 vol % diesel), EL10-B15-D75, nBu5-B10-D85 (5 vol % n-butanol, 10 vol % biodiesel, and 85 vol % diesel), and nBu10-B15-D75 were compared on a horizontal, four-stroke, and single-cylinder engine. Ethyl levulinate–biodiesel–diesel (EL-B-D) blends and n-butanol–biodiesel–diesel (nBu-B-D) blends showed good miscibility. Generally, EL-B-D blends were more effective than nBu-B-D blends for decreasing kinematic viscosity, increasing closed cup flash point and oxygen content, although nBu-B-D blends were more effective than EL-B-D blends for decreasing cold filter plugging point and distillation. Overall, when used in a diesel engine, the fuel blends showed a slightly higher brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than neat diesel, with EL-B-D being slightly higher than nB-B-D. EL-B-D blends were more effective than nB-B-D blends for reducing carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and smoke opacity, while nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increases were more obvious in EL-B-D blends. Compared with EL-B-D blends, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of nBu-B-D blends were higher. The results provide a useful reference for further research of the effects of using these blends on emissions.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 51506049).
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the American Chemical Society via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 31 (5), pp. 5055 - 5062