Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation
Public Library of Science
Copyright: © 2016 Latorre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT) has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system.
This work was funded by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF/FEDER) (BFU2010-18971), Zaragoza University (UZ2014-BIO-03), European Social Found (ESF) and the Aragon Regional Government (B61) and the Foundation for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Aragón (ARAINF 012/2008). ARAID Foundation supported J.P. (SAF2014-54763-C2-1-R) and E. Layunta is a PhD student fellow from Aragon Regional Government (B022/13). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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Vol. 11 (12) article e0169303
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright: © 2016 Latorre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.