Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds
Nature Ecology and Evolution
Reason for embargo
Animal camouflage is a longstanding example of adaptation. Much research has tested how camouflage prevents detection and recognition, largely focusing on changes to an animal's own appearance over evolution. However, animals could also substantially alter their camouflage by behaviourally choosing appropriate substrates. Recent studies suggest that individuals from several animal taxa could select backgrounds or positions to improve concealment. Here, we test whether individual wild animals choose backgrounds in complex environments, and whether this improves camouflage against predator vision. We studied nest site selection by nine species of ground-nesting birds (nightjars, plovers and coursers) in Zambia, and used image analysis and vision modeling to quantify egg and plumage camouflage to predator vision. Individual birds chose backgrounds that enhanced their camouflage, being better matched to their chosen backgrounds than to other potential backgrounds with respect to multiple aspects of camouflage. This occurred at all three spatial scales tested (a few cm and five meters from the nest, and compared to other sites chosen by conspecifics), and was the case for the eggs of all bird groups studied, and for adult nightjar plumage. Thus, individual wild animals improve their camouflage through active background choice, with choices highly refined across multiple spatial scales.
J.T., J.W-A. and M.S. were funded by a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) grant BB/J018309/1 to M.S., and a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellowship (BB/G022887/1) to M.S., and C.N.S was funded by a Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship, a BBSRC David Phillips Fellowship (BB/J014109/1) and the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence at the FitzPatrick Institute. In Zambia we thank the Bruce-Miller, Duckett and Nicolle families, Collins Moya and numerous other nest-finding assistants and land owners, Lackson Chama, and the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We also thank Ron Douglas for supplying lens transmission data for the ferret, and three referees for constructive comments.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Springer Nature via the DOI in this record.
Published online 31 July 2017