The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle for fracture mapping within a marble quarry (Carrara, Italy): photogrammetry and discrete fracture network modelling
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk
Taylor & Francis
This is the author accepted manuscript of an open access article available from Taylor & Francis via the DOI in this record. Distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This paper describes the use of a drone in collecting data for mapping discontinuities within a marble quarry. A topographic survey was carried out in order to guarantee high spatial accuracy in the exterior orientation of images. Photos were taken close to the slopes and at different angles, depending on the orientation of the quarry walls. This approach was used to overcome the problem of shadow areas and to obtain detailed information on any feature desired. Dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds obtained through image processing were used to rebuild the quarry geometry. Discontinuities were then mapped deterministically in detail. Joint attitude interpretation was not always possible due to the regular shape of the cut walls; for every discontinuity set we therefore also mapped the uncertainty. This, together with additional fracture characteristics, was used to build 3D discrete fracture network models. Preliminary results reveal the advantage of modern photogrammetric systems in producing detailed orthophotos; the latter allow accurate mapping in areas difficult to access (one of the main limitations of traditional techniques). The results highlight the benefits of integrating photogrammetric data with those collected through classical methods: the resulting knowledge of the site is crucially important in instability analyses involving numerical modelling.
Part of the present study was undertaken within the framework of the Italian National Research Project PRIN2009, funded by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, which involves the collaboration between the University of Siena, ‘La Sapienza’ University of Rome, and USL1 of Massa and Carrara (Mining Engineering Operative Unit – Department of Prevention). The authors acknowledge M. Pellegri and D. Gullì (USL1, Mining Engineering Operative Unit – Department of Prevention), M. Ferrari, M. Profeti and V. Carnicelli (Cooperativa Cavatori Lorano), X. Chaoshui and P.A. Dowd (School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide, South Australia) and M. Bocci (Geographike) for their support of this research.
Vol. 8 (1), pp. 34-52