Early diagenetic evolution of the Chalk in eastern Denmark
The Depositional Record
Wiley Open Access
© 2016 The Authors. The Depositional Record published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Sedimentologists. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The genesis of polygonal faults is an intriguing diagenetic phenomenon. This study discusses their origin in carbonate mudstones together with other associated diagenetic features. In the eastern Danish Basin, at the fringe of the Baltic Sea, the Stevns peninsula offers a unique opportunity to study the early diagenesis of Upper Cretaceous Chalk deposits, buried between 500 m and 1400 m. This paper combines data from onshore and offshore high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, a fully cored borehole with high-resolution wireline logs and quarry and coastal cliff outcrops to study early diagenetic features at different scales. Chalk is affected by an extensive polygonal fault system that is detected in onshore and offshore seismic data. Outcrop and core data provide a better understanding of the distribution of contraction-related features like deformation bands (hairline fractures), stylolites and fluid escape structures. An original model of genetic relationships between these different diagenetic processes is documented for Chalk. The spatial relationships between stylolites and fractures suggest that pressure-solution processes triggered shear failure that initiated the polygonal fault systems. The early diagenetic processes affect the reservoir properties of Chalk by creating compartments and vertical connections. Taking these features into account will allow for a more detailed understanding of early diagenesis and better models for exploiting drinking water or hydrocarbons hosted in Chalk.
We acknowledge Kresten Anderskouv for his pre-review work. Finn Surlyk is thanked for the stimulating discussions on Chalk depositional system and its evolution in Denmark. We would like to thank Lars Ole Boldreel for giving access to the original seismic data repository. Lise Boulicault is also thanked for her help during field acquisition. We are grateful to Maersk Oil for having sponsored this research in the C-cubed project framework. We thank J. Cartwright, C. Jackson, L. Lonergan and A. Gay for their revision of a former version of the manuscript. We also would like to thank J. D'Arcy for the English-language proofing of the manuscript.
This is the final version of the article. Available from Wiley Open Access via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 2, Iss. 2, pp. 154–172